MY FEELINGS RIGHT NOW
Arizona’s law banning Mexican-American studies is constitutional, judge rules
February 25, 2014
A court upheld most provisions of an Arizona state law used to prohibit a controversial Mexican-American Studies curriculum in Tucson on Friday.
The ruling dealt a blow to supporters of the suspended classes, who had hoped the courts would overturn a 2010 law championed by Arizona conservatives determined to shut down the unconventional courses.
“I was really surprised at the decision,” Jose Gonzalez, a former teacher of Tucson’s suspended Mexican-American Studies classes, told The Huffington Post. “But as a student and teacher of history, I know in civil rights cases like this there’s always setbacks.”
The experimental Tucson curriculum was offered to students in different forms in some of the local elementary, middle and high schools. It emphasized critical thinking and focused on Mexican-American literature and perspectives. Supporters lauded the program, pointing to increased graduation rates, high student achievement and a state-commissioned independent audit that recommended expanding the classes.
But conservative opponents accused the teachers of encouraging students to adopt left-wing ideas and resent white people, a charge the teachers deny. Aiming squarely at Tucson’s Mexican-American Studies program, the Arizona legislature passed HB 2281 — a law banning courses that promote the overthrow of the U.S. government, foster racial resentment, are designed for students of a particular ethnic group or that advocate ethnic solidarity.
Federal Judge Wallace Tashima said the plaintiffs failed to show the law was too vague, broad or discriminatory, or that it violated students’ first amendment rights.
The news wasn’t all bad for supporters of the suspended classes. Tashima ruled that the section of the law prohibiting courses tailored to serve students of a particular ethnicity was unconstitutional.
Originally filed in October of 2010 on behalf of the program’s former teachers, who lost standing because they are public employees, the case is currently brought by former Mexican-American Studies student Nicholas Dominguez and his mother Margarita Dominguez. They will likely appeal the ruling to the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals within the next 30 days, their lawyer Richard Martinez told The Huffington Post.
“This case is not over,” Martinez said. “It’s not only important to Arizona, but to the country as a whole that this statute be addressed.”
Arizona Attorney General Tom Horne began a campaign to eliminate the Mexican-American Studies program from Tucson Unified School District in 2006, when he was serving as the state’s Superintendent of Public Education.
Angered that Mexican-American civil rights leader Dolores Huerta had said that “Republicans hate Latinos” in a speech to Tucson students, Horne sent Deputy Superintendent Margaret Dugan, a Latina Republican, to give an alternate view. But the intellectual exercise turned confrontational when students, who said they were not allowed to ask Dugan questions, sealed their mouths with tape and walked out of the assembly room.
“As superintendent of schools, I have visited over 1,000 schools and I’ve never seen students be disrespectful to a teacher in that way,” Horne said in an interview last year.
The final product of his efforts was House Bill 2281, which then-State Sen. John Huppenthal (R) helped pilot through the Arizona legislature. Huppenthal, who succeeded Horne as state superintendent of schools, then found Tucson out of compliance with the new law and ordered the district to shut Mexican-American Studies down or lose 10 percent of its annual funding — some $14 million over the fiscal year. In January of 2012, the school board complied, voting 4 to 1 to discontinue the classes.
The decision drew national attention as administrators plucked Latino literature that once belonged to the curriculum from classrooms, explicitly banning seven titles from instruction.
This is what I’m often referring to when I talk about backlash and suppression of education in the United States. There is literally legislation that bans teaching the history of colonization and civil rights movements in various states-states like Arizona, in which 43% of the population are “minorities”…30% of Arizona is Hispanic/Latin@.
That’s not actually a coincidence. :|
This is systematic, institutional disenfranchisement in action.
Speaking of racism — what the actual fuck? No, this shouldn’t be constitutional. This is erasure.
I love history, but I hate the way it is manipulated like this. As if no one else in the world has history but white men. Everything else is a foot note or extracurricular and thus disregarded or able to be cut out and banned.
This reminds me of thishttp://ughsocialjustice.tumblr.com/post/77830685535/just-read-an-article-on-how-literary-critics-dont
Short documentary on how the vfx industry is hurting, similar conditions are happening in the game dev industry, and I’m sure in other similar creative work. Mandatory watch for the artists and animators following me. Stick together.
For those who care, first track from the Haka ep, recorded and mixed by Niko Z. Release date sometime in 2046
I don’t usually do fan art but… mirror moon ep is probably one of the most enchanting game experiences i have had in a long time.
Artist Interview - Gabriele Brombin
Gabriele Brombin is the genius behind Mirror Moon’s artwork. His unique visual style lends an already mysterious game an extra layer of artistry that takes the game from impressive, to beautifully alien. Based in Milan, Italy, Gabriele holds a degree in Communication Design and works for a creative agency as well as a self-publisher, where he recently self-published his first graphic novel, The Sand Sea and the Plateaux of Mirrors; a stunning piece of work that appears to be set in the same universe as Mirror Moon. I took the time to interview him about his work for Mirror Moon, and his first graphic novel.
Gabriele, let’s start with your beautiful promo pieces for Mirror Moon. Both of these pieces, one depicting day on the red moon and the other depicting night, express the importance of geometry and perspective within the game’s minimalistic worlds. How close were you to the project as a whole? Judging by your previous work, it certainly feels that your particular style has had an impact on the aesthetic design of the game.
Nicolò and Pietro contacted me when the A side was already beta, and the game had quite defined aesthetics already. They saw an affinity in themes and approach in our respective works and they thought I was suitable to take care of the illustrations for the game. The collaboration went well, so I’ve been involved in the sketching of concepts for the structures and artefacts that can be found on the planets of the EP, and for another series of illustrations focused on these structures.
To read the full interview, visit the article on Pxlbyte.
Jan Erik Waider - Arctic Dawn, Greenland